Documents and Resources


Ballast Water/Biofouling Documents


Guidance Document for: Biofouling Management Regulations to Minimize the Transfer of Nonindigenous Species from Vessels Arriving at California Ports (California State Lands Commission 9/19/17)

Best Practices for Operation of Ballast Water Management Systems (Identified during ABS 2nd BWMS Workshop, Houston ABS 2017)

New Zealand Biofouling Management 

Ballast Water Treatment Systems at a Glance (Hellenic Shipping News 7/22/2017)

Application of flow cytometry in ballast water analysis—biological aspects (Hoell et al. 2017)



Mini-review: Assessing the drivers of ship biofouling management – aligning industry and biosecurity goals (Davidson et. al 2016)

Intertanko guide to modern antifouling systems and biofouling management (Intertanko 2016)



Harmful aquatic organisms in ballast water (IMO 2015)

Ballast-borne marine invasive species: Exploring the risk to coastal Alaska, USA (Verna et al. 2015)

Failure of the public health testing program for ballast water treatment systems (Cohen and Dobbs 2015)

Hydroxide stabilization as a new tool for ballast disinfection: efficacy of treatment on zooplankton (Moffitt et al. 2015)

Effectiveness of Ballast Water Exchange in Protecting Puget Sound from Invasive Species (Cordell et al. 2015)

High colonization and propagule pressure by ship ballast as a vector for the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia  (Kaczmarska and Ehrman 2015)

Biennial Report on the California Marine Invasive Species Program (CSLC 2015)

A vector analysis of marine ornamental species in California (Williams et al. 2015)

Vessel biofouling prevention and management options report (USCG, SERC 2015)



Ballast Responder: Emergency and Contingency Measures for Ballast Water Treatment (©The Glosten Associates 2014)

Assessment of the Efficacy, Availability, and Environmental Impacts of Ballast Water Treatment Technologies for Use in California Waters (California State Lands Commission 2014)

Marine Invasive Species in the Arctic (Norden 2014)

Science underpinning the thresholds proposed in the CRMS: Biofouling on vessels arriving to New Zealand (Georgiades and Kluza 2014)

Vessel generator noise as a settlement cue for marine biofouling species (McDonald et al. 2014)



Managing the Domestic Spread of Harmful Marine Organisms Part A - Operational tools for Management (Prepared for Preparedness & Partnerships Directorate, Ministry for Primary Industries {New Zealand } 2013)

Managing The Domestic Spread Of Harmful Marine Organisms, Part B: Statutory Framework And Analysis Of Options (New Zealand) (Sinner et al. 2013)

Developing a Comprehensive Long-Term Research Strategy to Support Determination of Protective Ballast Water Discharge Standards (EPA 2013)

2013 Final Vessel General Permit for Discharges Incidental to the Normal Operation of Vessels (EPA)

Comparison of California’s Marine Invasive Species Program and the United States Federal Programs that Manage Vessels as Vectors of Nonindigenous Species (CASLC 2013)

USCG Environmental Standards—U.S. Great Lakes Engineering and Cost Study (2013)

Assessment of the Efficacy, Availability, and Environmental Impacts of Ballast Water Treatment Systems for Use in California Waters (CASLC 2013)

National Wildlife Federation V. Environmental Protection Agency (2013)

Clean Water Act: EPA Issues New Vessel General Permit With Numeric Limits for Ballast Water Discharges (2013)


Ballast Water Management to Combat Invasive Species (CRS 2012)

Exploring the Limits of Dissolved Organic Matter Fluorescence for Determining Seawater Sources and Ballast Water Exchange on the US Pacific Coast (Murphy el al. 2012)

Ratification by USA — International Convention On The Control Of Harmful Anti-Fouling Systems On Ships (August 2012)

Discussion Paper: Canadian Implementation of the Ballast Water Convention (Transport Canada 2012)

Response Protocols for Biofouled Debris and Invasive Species Generated by the 2011 Japan Tsunami

Crossing Boundaries: Managing Invasive Species and Water Quality Risks for Coastal Boat Hulls in California and Baja California (Johnson et al. 2012)

Integrated Pest Management for Hull Fouling in Southern California Coastal Marinas (Culver and Johnson 2012)

INTERTANKO Ballast Water Management for Tankers (downloadable product, for purchase, 2012)

Interim Guidance for Acceptance of Alternate Management Systems, Independent Laboratories, and Type Approval of BWM Systems (13 April 2012, USCG)

USCG Standards for Living Organisms in Ships’ Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters (March 23, 2012)

Emergency Response Guidance for Handling Ballast Water to Control Aquatic Invasive Species (The Glosten Associates 2012)

Mixing Biocides into Ship’s Ballast Water—Great Lakes Bulk Carrier Field Trials (The Glosten Associates 2012)


Invasive Aquatic Species – A Proposed Alternative Solution (Hull Fouling) (Hydrex 2011)

Ballast Discharge Monitoring System for Great Lakes Relevant Ships: A Guidebook (GSI, 2011)

Economic Assessments for Ballast Water Management: A Guideline (GloBallast 2011)

Efficacy of Ballast Water Treatment Systems: a Report by the EPA Science Advisory Board (July 2011)

Assessing the Relationship Between Propagule Pressure and Invasion Risk in Ballast Water (NRC 2011)

Ballast Water Management in the Great Lakes Reduces the Introduction of Aquatic Invasive Species: Fisheries and Oceans Canada Study (June 2011)

SAB Draft Report dated March 3, 2011 for EPEC Ballast Water Review (EPA Science Advisory Board 2011)

Evaluating Efficacy of an Environmental Policy to Prevent Biological Invasions (Bailey et al. 2011)

Enumerating Sparse Organisms in Ships’ Ballast Water: Why Counting to 10 Is Not So Easy (Miller et al. 2011)


Emergency Response Guide for Handling Ballast Water to Control Non-Indigenous Species (Reynolds et al. 2010)

Great Lakes Panel on Aquatic Nuisance Species Position Statement on a National Ballast Water Discharge Standard (2010)

Performance Standards for the Discharge of Ballast Water for Vessels Operating in California Waters (2010)

Availability and Efficacy of Ballast Water Treatment Technology: Background and Issue Paper (Albert et al. 2010)

Density Matters: Review of Approaches to Setting Organism-Based Ballast Water Discharge Standards (Lee, Reusser, Frazier and Ruiz, 2010)


Intra-coastal ballast water flux and the potential for secondary spread of non-native species on the US West Coast (Simkanin et al. 2009

Silent Invasion – The Spread of Marine Invasive Species Via Ships’ Ballast Water (WWF 2009)

2009 Great Lakes Seaway Ballast Water Working Group Report

IMO: List of Ballast Water Management Systems that Make Use of Active Substances That Received Basic and Final Approvals (2009)


California Ballast Water Treatment Technology Testing Guidelines (2008)

Guidelines on Marine Biofouling and Invasive Species (GISP 2008)

Managing Aquatic Invasive Species Risks from Shipping Transport Pathways (State of Oregon 2008)

EPA Vessel General Permit for Discharges Incidental to the Normal Operation of Vessels (2008)

Regulating Ballast Water Discharges: Current Legislative Issues (CRS 2008)


Ballast Water Management to Combat Invasive Species (CRS 2007)

Managing Hull-Borne Invasive Species and Coastal Water Quality for California and Baja California Boats Kept in Saltwater (Johnson et al.  2007)


Managing Hull-Borne Invasive Species and Coastal Water Quality for California and Baja California Boats Kept in Saltwater (Johnson et al. 2006)

Issue paper: Ballast Water Issue Paper (Management Technologies Shore Based Treatment, Hull Fouling and NOBOBs, Regulations, Legislation) (Phillips 2006) j

Proceedings: ABWEA_Final_Workshop on Alternate Ballast Water Exchange Areas: Physical and Biological Oceanographic Considerations (June 20-22, 2006)


Managing Hull Transport of Aquatic Invasive Species: Proceedings of May 11, 2005 Workshop in San Francisco, California (Gonzalez and  Johnson, Editors, 2005)

Progress and Challenges in Preventing Introduction into U.S. Waters Via the Ballast Water in Ships (GAO 2005)

Ballast Water Exchange: Efficacy of Treating Ships’ Ballast Water to Reduce Marine Species Transfers and Invasion Success? (Ruiz et al. 2005)

Workshop Report on Testing of Ballast Water Treatment Systems: General Guidelines and Step-wise Strategy Toward Shipboard Testing (June 14-16 2005, Portland, Oregon)


Ecological and Oceanographic Criteria for Alternate Ballast Water Exchange Zones in the Pacific Region (Levings and Forman 2004)


An Analysis of the Oregon Coastal Exchage Requirement (Vinograd 2003)


Ballast Water and Shipping Patterns in Puget Sound: Considerations for Siting of Alternative Ballast Water Exchange Zones (PSWQAT 2000)