Economic Effects of Aquatic Invasive Species



General Publications


Economic impacts of invasive species: Direct cost estimates and economic impacts for Washington State (January 2017)

Invasive species impacts on infrastructure (ISAC 2016)

The economic cost of managing invasive species in Australia (Hoffman and Broadhurst 2016)

Economics of Controlling Invasive Species: A Stochastic Optimization Model for a Spatial-dynamic Process (Chalak et al. 2016)

Invasive Species Could Cause Billions in Damages to Agriculture (Paini et al. 2016)

Invasive Species Triggers a Massive Loss of Ecosystem Services Through a Trophic Cascade (Walsh et. al 2016)

Benefits of Controlling Nuisance Aquatic Plants and Algae in the United States (Getsinger et al. 2014)

Incentivizing the Public to Support Invasive Species Management: Eurasian Milfoil Reduces Lakefront Property Values (Olden and Tamayo 2014)

The Economic Impacts of US Ballast-water Regulations (September 2013)

The Cost of Invasive Species (USFWS 2012)

The Costs of Aquatic Invasive Species to Great Lakes States (Rosaen et al. 2012)

The Value of Nonindigenous Species Risk Assessment in International Trade (Springborn et al. 2011)

Economics of controlling invasive species: A stochastic optimization model for a spatial-dynamic process (Chalak et al. 2011)

The Effect of an Aquatic Invasive Species (Eurasian watermilfoil) on Lakefront Property Values (Zhang and Boyle 2010)

Dynamic Sanitary and Phytosanitary Trade Policy. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management (Olson and Ray 2010)

Counting the Cost of Alien Invasions. BBC News (Steiner 2010)

10 Invasive Species That Cost the U.S. a Bundle. DailyFinance (Watson 2010)

Invasive Species to Cost Local Residents: Eurasian Milfoil continues to make a home on Silver Lake in Grand Traverse County. (Rehmer 2009)

Introduction: Workshop on Submersed Aquatic Plant Research Priorities. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management (Sytsma 2008)

Modeling Economic Impacts of the European Green Crab (Lovell et al. 2007)

The Economic Impacts of Aquatic Invasive Species: A Review of the Literature (Lovell et al. 2006)
Outdoor Recreation Industry Worth $730 Billion. Idaho Mountain Express (Kauffman 2006)

The Economic Impacts of Aquatic Invasive Species: A Review of the Literature. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Economics (Lovell and Stone 2005)

Summary of a Survey of the Literature on the Economic Impact of Aquatic Weeds. The Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Foundation (Rockwell 2003)

Economic Dimensions of Invasive Species. Choices Magazine (Evans 2003)


Biological Control of Marine Pests. Ecology (Lafferty and Kuris 1996)

Harmful Non-Indigenous Species in the United States. U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment (OTA 1993)


Zebra and Quagga Mussels


Defensive Measures - Gavins Point Hatchery Adds Filtration System to Halt Spread of Zebra Mussels (July 2017) (Yankton Daily Press and Dakotan)
City uses copper to fight zebra mussels' impacts on water treatment infrastructure
 (news article - Lewisville Texan Journal)
A small invasive shellfish is playing havoc with Central Basin's budget (news article - Whittier Daily News)
Invasive zebra mussel colony found in city's water piping; city to start new water treatment to kill them (news article -


Advancing a regional defense against dreissenids in the Pacific Northwest (PNWER and PSMFC 2015)
Southern Nevada Water Authority Mussel Invasion Costly (9/4/15)


TX City Projects Spending $3 million over 3 years to fish invasive species (7/5/14)


An Estimate of Annual Economic Cost of Invasive Dreissenid Mussels to Alberta (Neupane 2013)
Effects of Aquatic Invasive Species on Home Prices – Evidence from Wisconsin (Johnson and Meder 2013)
Invasive Mussels Update Economic Risk of Zebra and Quagga Mussels in the Columbia River Basin (IEAB 2013)
Preliminary Damage Estimates for Selected Invasive Fauna in B.C. (Robinson et al. 2013)
The Economic Cost of Invasive and Non-native Species in Ireland and Northern Ireland (Kelly et al 2013)
Estimating costs of using foul-release type coatings to mitigate Dreissena sp. mussel macrofouling at a FCRPS facility (Wells and Sytsma 2013)



Long-Term Funding Needs for Aquatic Invasive Species Programs (Minnesota Department of Natural Resources 2012)
Expecting A Higher Water Bill? Blame Zebra Mussels (August 2012)
Long-Term Funding Needs for Aquatic Invasive Species Programs (MNDNR 2012)
The Costs of Aquatic Invasive Species to Great Lakes States (Anderson Economic Group 2012)
Metropolitan Water District wages costly war with nature and age (March 2012)


Stepping Stones for Biological Invasion: A Bioeconomic Model of Transferable Risk (Warziniack et al. 2011)
Harmful Animal Invaders – The Economic Realities (NECIS 2011)
Invasion of the Zebra Mussels Costs UK Million of Pounds (2011)
Nevada  AIS Fact Sheet (Contains various AIS  economic impact costs, 2011)


Divers to Clear Zebra Mussel Remains From Water Intake (NY) —  $396,000 (2010)
A Cost-Benefit Analysis Of Preventative Management For Zebra And Quagga Mussels In The Colorado-Big Thompson System (Thomas 2010)
Economists Work on Financial Cost of Zebra/Quagga Mussel Invasion in Columbia River Basin. (The Columbia Basin Bulletin 2010)
Wichita City Council Approves Plan to Fight Zebra Mussels. (Farris 2010)
Economic Risk Associated with the Potential Establishment of Zebra and Quagga Mussels in the Columbia River Basin (IEAB 2010)


Invasive Quagga Mussels a Growing Threat. (The Associated Press 2009)
Ecologists Put Price Tag on Invasive Species. Ecological Society of America (Buckley 2009)
The Economics of Invasive Species. Oregon Invasive Species Council (Cusack et al. 2009)
Great Lake Scourge Infects West. Journal Sentinel (Egan 2009)
Invasive Species Imperil Western Water System. The Associated Press (Fonseca 2009)
Estimated Potential Economic Impact of Zebra and Quagga Mussel Introduction into Idaho. Idaho Invasive Species Council (Idaho Aquatic Nuisance Species Taskforce 2009)
Invasive Species: Tiny Eurasian Mussel Now Threatening Mighty Hoover Dam (Streater 2009)
Lake Tahoe Region Aquatic Invasive Species Management Plan, California – Nevada (USACE 2009)


Economic Impacts of Zebra Mussels on Drinking Water Treatment and Electric Power Generation Facilities. Environmental Management (Connelly et al. 2007)
Hearing on The Silent Invasion: Finding Solutions to Minimize the Impacts of Invasive Quagga Mussels on Water Rates, Water Infrastructure and the Environment. Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (De Leon 2008)
Searching for Solution to Mussel Invasions. North Lake Tahoe Bonanza (Flanzraich 2008)
Aquatic Nuisance Species – Evaluating the Ecological and Economic Value of the 100th Meridian Initiative. University of Notre Dame (Lodge et al. 2006)
Testimony on Impact of Invasive Quagga Mussels. Southern Nevada Water Authority (Zegers 2008)
Update on the Environmental and Economic Costs Associated with Alien-invasive Species in the United States. Cornell University (Pimental et al. 2004)
An Ounce of Prevention or a Pound of Cure: Bioeconomic Risk Analysis of Invasive Species. University of Notre Dame (Leung et al.  2002)
Potential Economic Impacts of Zebra Mussels on the Hydropower Facilities in the Columbia River Basin. Bonneville Power Administration (Phillips, Sytsma and Darland 2005)
Mussel Model Calls for Cash to Combat Invading Species. Newsletter of American Malacological Society (Reichhardt 2003)
Economic Impact of the Spread of Alien Species in Germany. Federal Environmental Agency (Germany) (Reinhardt et al. 2003)
“Musseling” in on the Ninth District economy How many clams will it cost? (Cataldo 2001)
Report: Estimates of Economic Impacts from ANS (mostly those attributed to zebra mussels) (Phillips 2001)


Costly Interlopers: Introduced Species of Animals, Plants and Microbes Cost the U.S. $123 Billion a Year. Scientific American (Hall 1999)
Zebra Mussels Pose a Threat to Virginia’s Waters. Virginia Cooperative Extension (Helfrich et al. 1997)
Zebra Mussel Control Costs in Surface Water Using Facilities. Ohio Sea Grant College Program (Park and Hushak 1999)
Environmental and Economic Costs Associated with Non-Indigenous Species in the United States. Cornell University (Pimentel et al. 1999)
Aquatic Vegetation in Irrigation Canals, A Guide to Integrated Management. Oregon Department of Agriculture, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Sytsma and Parker 1999)


Zebra Mussels Cost Great Lakes Water Users an Estimated $120 Million. ANS Update (Hushak 1996)


Other Aquatic Invasive Species by Region





Managing Invasive Species: How Much Do We Spend (AKSLC 2012)?


Pacific Northwest - Columbia River Basin


Economic Impact From Selected Noxious Weeds in Oregon (The Research Group, LLC 2014)

Economic Impacts of Invasive Species in the Pacific Northwest Economic Region (PNWER 2012)

Economic Impact of Invasive Species Direct Cost Estimates and Economic Impacts for Washington State (CAI 2017)



Southwest - United States


California Aquatic Invasive Species Rapid Response Fund An Economic Evaluation (Cardno/ENTRIX 2011)

Nonindigenous aquatic Species in United States Estuary: A Case Study of the Biological Invasions of the San Francisco Bay and Delta (Cohen and Carlton 1995)

Great Lakes

Ship-borne Nonindigenous Species Diminish Great Lakes Ecosystem Services (Rothlisberger et al. 2012)

The Costs of Aquatic Invasive Species to Great Lakes States (Anderson Economic Group 2012)

Assessing the Economic Value of Protecting the Great Lakes Invasive Species Prevention and Mitigation (Marbek 2010)

Annual Losses to Great Lakes Region by Ship-borne Invasive Species at least $200 Million (preliminary results, Lodge and Finnoff 2008)

Benefits and Costs of the Ruffe Control Program for the Great Lakes Fishery (Leigh 1998)




Characterised and Projected Costs of Nonindigenous Species in Canada (Colautti et al. 2006)




Inquiry into Invasive Non-Native Species (Wales 2014)

The Invaders Costing UK Billions (2011)

The Economic Cost of Invasive Non-Native Species on Great Britain (Williams et al. 2010)




Economic and Environmental Impacts of Harmful SE Asia 2013 (Nghiem et al. 2013)