Quagga and Zebra Mussel Eradication Projects

 

Open Water

 

Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba

Size: surface area- 24,514 km2 (9,465 sq mi)

Zebra Mussel Discovery: October 2013

Zebra Mussel Control: closed harbor areas with silt curtains and treated with liquid potash

Authority:

Method: Potassium Chloride Aqueous Solution 20 per cent, administered and monitored in the harbours by Ontario-based ASI Consulting Group Ltd.

Duration:

Collateral Damage: impacts to fishing boats and harbors during treatment window.

Cost: $500,000

Eradication: No, large clumps of mussels found along shorelines within one year.

Notes: Zebra mussels first found on the hull of a private boat and a dock at Winnipeg Beach, and on some fishing boats dry docked at Gimli.

 

Pomme de Terre, Hermitage, Missouri

Size: 7,820 acres (32 km2) multipurpose pool; 16,100 acres (65 km2) flood pool

Zebra Mussel Discovery: December 2015 Zebra Mussel Control: Drawdown and chemicals

Authority: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers & Missouri Department of Conservation

Method: the lake was dropped 3 feet and the Lindley Arm where the infested dock had been launch treated twice—48.6 pounds (6 ppm) of copper sulfate crystals and 60 lbs. of potassium chloride each time. 

Duration:

Collateral Damage:

Cost: $356 (chemicals); $1345 (MDC biologists)

Eradication: TBD, Extra zebra mussel samplers have been deployed

Notes: a dock with mussels was being transferred from an infested water; mussels were found on it at new location & dock was removed immediately from the water.

 

Lake Piru, California

Size: surface area 1,240 acres

Quagga Mussel Discovery: December 2013 (Found on patrol boat and settlement samplers).

Quagga Mussel Control:

Authority: United Water Conservation District

Method:

Duration:

Collateral Damage:

Cost:

Eradication: No.

Notes: First Southern California water impacted that wasn’t connected to Colorado River. Several meetings to discuss drawdown and treatment occurred. Competing interests resulted in no drawdown. Drought in California resulted in reservoir dropping to 17% of pool

 

San Justo Reservoir, California

Size: 9,785 acre-feet

Zebra Mussel Discovery: November 1 2008 (brought in by angler).

Zebra Mussel Control: Full Closure of Lake; No public access

Authority: Bureau of Reclamation and California Fish and Wildlife

Method: Annual water drawdowns for population control have resulted in smaller populations in 2016 than in 2008.

Duration: 2008 - present

Collateral Damage: Loss of fishing and recreation

Cost:

Eradication: No.

Zebra Mussel Eradication Project for San Justo Reservoir, Hollister Conduit, and San Benito County Water Distribution System (FONSI-09-010) (Bureau of Reclamation, South-Central California Area Office 2015)

 

Lake Offut, Offut Air Force Base, Nebraska

Size: 113 acres

Zebra Mussel Discovery: April 2006; rediscovered May 1, 2014

Zebra Mussel Control: Closed to public access, treated with copper sulfate

Authority: U.S. Air Force

Method: Lake was treated with copper sulfate twice

Duration: fall 2008 and winter 2009

Collateral Damage: Loss of fishing and recreation

Cost:

Eradication: No.

Notes: Subsequent monitoring in 2009 was negative for zebra mussel larvae and adults. However, in October 2010, three live adults were found on a sampling disk, but no veligers were detected in subsequent sampling efforts.

Zebra Mussel Eradication Project, Lake Offutt, Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska (November 2009)

 

Lake Zorinsky, Omaha, Nebraska

Size: 225 acres

Zebra Mussel Discovery:November 2010 (a local Boy Scout found a zebra mussel attached to a beer can at the edge of the lake).

Zebra Mussel Control:

Authority: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers & City of Omaha

Method: the lake was partially drained in the winter of 2010–11, lowering its level by 17.5 feet (5.3 m):

Duration:

Collateral Damage:

Cost:

Eradication: No. Mussel veligers detected July 2016

Notes: Zebra mussels found at Zorinsky Lake in 2010 included some of the largest found anywhere in the U.S. up to that time; the largest was about 1.7 inches. Once they drained the lake, more than 900 mussels were found on the exposed bed.

Assessment of the Water Quality Conditions at Ed Zorinsky Reservoir and the Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) Population Emerged after the Drawdown of the Reservoir and Management Implications for the District's Papillion and Salt Creek Reservoirs (USACE 2012)

 

Millbrook Quarry, Virginia

Size: 12 surface acres; 93 ft max depth (180 Million gallons)

Zebra Mussel Discovery: August 2002

Zebra Mussel Control: January 31, 2006 – February 17, 2006.

Authority: Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries

Method: 174,000 gallons of potassium chloride solution

Target Dose: 100 mg/l (100 ppm)

Duration: 3 weeks

Collateral Damage: Minimal to non-mollusks

Cost: $365,000

Eradication: Yes

Notes: Only known successful open-water eradication attempt for zebra mussels in North America

Final Environmental Assessment Millbrook Quarry Zebra mussel and Quagga Mussel Eradication (2005)

Millbrook Quarry, Virginia Zebra Mussel Eradication (2005)

 

Edinboro Lake, Pennsylvania

Size: 252 surface acres

Zebra Mussel Discovery: 2000

Zebra Mussel Control: December 2000 and November 2001

Authority: Borough of Edinboro

Method: Winter Drawdown

Target Drawdown: 5 feet

Duration: unknown

Collateral Damage: Minimal

Cost: unknown

Eradication: No; mussels quickly repopulated

Winter Lake Drawdown as a Strategy for Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) Control: Results of Pilot Studies in Minnesota and Pennsylvania (Grazio and Montz 2002)

Lake Ossawinnamakee, Minnesota

Size: 644 surface acres

Zebra Mussel Discovery: 2003

Zebra Mussel Control: 2004, 2005

Authority: MN Department of Natural Resources

Method: Copper Sulfate used kill the veligers in the bay leading to an outlet stream (Pelican Brook ) that exits the lake, flows for about 5 miles and enters the Pine River, which then flows for about 11 miles and enters the Mississippi River. MNDNR wanted to prevent short-term movement through this connection. A 26-acre bay leading to the outlet stream was treated weekly with a chelated copper sulfate product.

Duration: Weekly during summer months (June-September)

Collateral Damage: Molluscan fauna eliminated, as well as amphipods, mayflies and stoneflies, with some species of caddisflies also showing impacts.

Cost:

Eradication: No: In fall 2005, zebra mussels were reported in a backwater lake on the mainstem of the Mississippi River downstream of the Ossawinnamakee connection. While these may not have moved from the lake, it stopped further efforts at treatment and containment for Lake Ossawinnamakee.

 

Lake Zumbro, Minnesota

Size: 1600 surface acres

Zebra Mussel Discovery: 2000

Zebra Mussel Control: November 2001

Authority: Borough of Edinboro

Method: Winter Drawdown

Target Drawdown: 5 feet

Duration: More than one week

Collateral Damage: Minimal

Cost: unknown

Eradication: No; mussels quickly repopulated

 

El Dorado Reservoir, Kansas

Size: 8000 surface acres

Zebra Mussel Discovery: 2003

Zebra Mussel Control: December, 2003

Authority: KS Department of Wildlife & Parks / U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Method: Drawdown

Target Drawdown: 3.5 feet

Duration: Unknown

Collateral Damage: Minimal

Cost: Unknown

Eradication: No, mussel population quickly recovered

 

Lake George, New York

Size: 28,000 surface acres

Zebra Mussel Discovery: 1999

Zebra Mussel Control: 2000 - present

Authority: Lake George Association / Darrin Freshwater Institute

Method: Hand harvesting

Duration: Unknown

Collateral Damage: Minimal

Cost: Unknown

Eradication: No. Hand harvesting may keep local populations down temporarily, but these populations quickly recover once harvesting has stopped.