Products Used to Control Dreissenids

 

Both non-chemical and chemical controls have varying levels of success in controlling dreissenids. Any likely control activity will result in physical and chemical changes to the environment. Best management practices call for minimizing both short- and long-term effects to the environment and to all non-target species. Numerous studies spanning several fish species have demonstrated that exposures to common metals and pesticides interfere with fish olfaction, ultimately disrupting life history processes that affect survival and reproductive success. Recovery of sensory function occurs more quickly for pesticides than for metals, such as copper (Tierney et al. 2010).

 

Mussel life cycle and behavior influence the strategies and tactics of chemical control, as well as choice of molluscicidal compound. Dreissenids cannot survive in saline conditions, but are well adapted to water temperatures (12 ºC to 32 ºC [55 ºF to 90 ºF]), pH range (6.5 to >8), and turbidity levels found in the CRB.

               

The application of chemical molluscicides is limited by:

  • How well it removes or kills the various dreissenid life stages.
  • It’s ability to be compatible with possible potable water use.
  • It’s toxicity to native fish and wildlife and their ecosystems.
  • Whether or not the system in which the chemical application occurs is closed, helping to ensure no release to the environment; or whether the system is open, requiring consideration of the effect of the chemical release downstream from the application site.
  • Cost effectiveness.

The following pesticides are currently registered products in the state of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho (Table 1). In addition, two products, Lo Temp Sanitizer (813-16-48211) and Sodium Hypocholorite – 12.5 Bacticide (72315-6), are registered in Washington and Idaho, but not in Oregon.

 

The two main categories of chemicals that have been used to treat dreissenid introductions are oxidizing biocides and non-oxidizing biocides (CRB Plan 2011).

 

Table 1. Formulation name and EPA registration number for all Section 3 pesticides registered in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho that are listed as capable of controlling zebra mussels.

 

EPA Reg.#

7000

748-295-1677

Accu-Tab® SI Calcium Hypochlorate

748-295

Acti-Brom® 1318

5185-467-1706

Anthium Dioxcide

9150-2

Aquabrom™

3377-25-71898

Bromide Plus

8622-49-69470

Chemtreat CL-41

15300-26

Chlorine Liquified Gas Under Pressure

72315-1

Formula 318

5185-451-8540

High Strength Sodium Hypochlorite EP

72315-16

K-Brom 40®

88714-3

Liquibrom 4000®

5185-451

Multibrom Liquid

8622-49-1677

Sanibrom 40 Biocide®

3377-25

Spectrus OX109®

3876-159

Spectrus OX1201®

3876-159

Stericlean Sodium Hypochlorite 12.5

72315-6-74225

Zequanox®

84059-15

Nalco® H150M

6836-235-1706