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The unsung success of injurious wildlife listing under the Lacey Act (Jewell and Fuller 2021)

A century of injurious wildlife listing under the Lacey Act: a history (Jewell 2020)

Public Law 116-9--March 12, 2019 John D. Dingell, Jr. Conservation, Management, and Recreation Act

Analysis of State Legal Requirements for Aquatic Invasive Species Biosecurity at Fish Hatcheries (Nichols and Otts 2019)

Comparative Analysis of Watercraft Inspection and Decontamination Requirements Along the Lower Colorado River (Sea Grant Law Center 2019)

Model Memorandum of Understanding for Watercraft Inspection and Decontamination Programs (National Sea Grant Law Center, US Fish and Wildlife Service 2018)

Invasive Species Law Review Compendium (Montana Invasive Species Council 2018)

Guidelines for developing commercial harvest policy for aquatic invasive species (Mississippi River Basin Panel on ANS 2007)

State Watercraft Inspection Programs - Quick Facts (National Sea Grant Law Center 2018)

Invasive Species: Major Laws and the Role of Selected Federal Agencies (2017)

Model Regulation for State Watercraft Inspection and Decontamination Programs (Otts, S., and P. Nanjappa, eds. 2016)

A Review of International, Federal, State, and Provincial Regulatory Roles and Responsibilities Relating to Aquatic Marine Invasive Species (September 2015)

A Jurisdictional Scan of Aquatic Invasive Species Education Programs, Outreach Initiatives, and Funding (Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, Ontario 2015)

Federal Policy Options: Addressing the Movement of Aquatic Invasive Species Onto and Off of Federal Lands and Waters (August 2015)

From Theory to Practice: A Comparison of State Watercraft Inspection and Decontamination Programs to Model Legislative Provisions (Showalter Otts - Revised and updated December 2018)

Preventing the Spread of Aquatic Invasive Species by Recreational Boats: Model Legislative Provisions & Guidance to Promote Reciprocity among State Watercraft Inspection and Decontamination Programs (Otts, S. and P. Nanjappa, eds. 2014)

Invasive Species: Major Laws and the Role of Selected Federal Agencies (CRC 2013)

The Federal Regulatory Framework for Controlling the Movement of Invasive Species and Updates on National Coordination Efforts (May 16, 2013)

Legal and Regulatory Efforts to Minimize Expansion of Invasive Mussels through Watercraft Movements (2012 Phoenix Workshop)

Invasive Species State Policy Report (California, Colorado, Florida, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Tennes­see) (ELI, May 2010)

Injurious Wildlife and the Federal Lacey Act

Western State AIS Regulations

Searchable .pdf of all western state AIS regulations (Updated 13 July 2021)

State Comparison - A comparison of the state WID programs to the model legal framework (December 2017)



Alaska Stat. § 16.05.251

Alaska Admin Code Title 5, Part 1, Ch. 1, Art. 1 (statewide provisions); Alaska Admin. Code tit. 5, § 01.010. Methods, means, and general provisions



Arizona’s Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) Interdiction Act (HB2157), approved and signed into law in July of 2009, created a mechanism for the State of Arizona to statutorily address invasive species in the aquatic environment, administered through the Arizona Game and Fish Department. The AIS Interdiction Act also provided for the establishment of the Department’s AIS Program, along with the creation of AIS “Director’s Orders” and associated watercraft cleaning/decontamination protocols.

Ariz. Rev. Stat. §§17-255 to 17-255.04

Ariz. Admin. Code R12-41101 and 12-4-1102

Director’s Order 1, 2 and 3 (1: List of Aquatic Invasive Species for Arizona; 2: List of Waters where Listed Species are Present; 3; Mandatory Conditions for Movement of Watercraft)

Arizona Game and Fish Department Operating Manual




The Aquatic Invasive Species chapter of the California Fish and Game Code contains general provisions concerning specific invasive species, including dreissenid mussels. The statute directs owners and managers of reservoirs used by the public to develop and implement dreissenid prevention programs. The state has also established a Quagga and Zebra Mussel Infestation Prevention Fee in the state’s Harbors and Navigation Code.

CA Fish & Game Code, Divisions 3, Ch. 3.5 (Aquatic Invasive Species) § 2300. Salt water algae of Caulerpa species; restrictions and exceptions; violations

Cal. Code Regs. Tit. 14, Division 1, Subdivision 3, Chapter 3. (Miscellaneous) § 671. Importation, transportation, and possession of live restricted animals



Colorado’s Aquatic Nuisance Species law, enacted in 2008, provides Colorado Parks and Wildlife with broad authority to take action to prevent, control, monitor, and eradicate aquatic nuisance species. The law specifically authorizes CPW to operate ANS check stations to inspect and decontaminate watercraft. CPW regulations contain a list of prohibited species and protocols for water body sampling and monitoring and watercraft inspection, decontamination, and impoundment.

Colo. Rev. Stat. Title 33, Article 10.5 (Aquatic Nuisance Species)

2 Colo. Code Regs Chapter 405-8 Chapter P-8 Aquatic Nuisance Species



Haw. Admin. Code Tit. 13, Chapter 76 (Non-indigenous Aquatic Species)

Haw. Rev. Stat. Tit. 12, Ch. 194 (Invasive Species Council)

Species List



The Idaho Invasive Species Act of 2008 provides for the establishment of the Idaho State Department of Agriculture’s invasive species program, which includes authority to establish, operate, and maintain check stations to inspect conveyances. ISDA regulations identify listed prohibited species and procedures for watercraft inspection and decontamination.

Idaho Code Ann. Title 22, Chapter 9

Idaho Admin. Code Title 6, Chapter 9

Idaho Invasive Species Sticker Regulations



Kansas Admin. Reg Agency 115, Art. 7 (Fish and Frogs)

Kansas Stat. Ch. 32, Art. 8 (Department of Wildlife, Parks, and Tourism)

Kansas Waters with Aquatic Nuisance Species



The Montana Invasive Species Act, enacted in 2009, established the state’s invasive species program and authorized the use of invasive species check stations to prevent the movement of invasive species from infested to uninfested areas. Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks has primary authority to implement the program and the agency’s regulations identify listed prohibited species and set forth the restrictions for contaminated bodies of water.

Invasive Species Law Review Compendium (Montana Invasive Species Council 2018)

Mont. Code Ann. Tit. 80, Ch. 7, Part 10 (Aquatic Invasive Species)

Mont. Admin. R., Tit. 12, Ch. 5, Sub. 7 (Aquatic Invasive Species Management Area Restrictions), R. 12.5.701 (Identified Contaminated Bodies of Water)

Montana Exotic Species Amendments



Nebraska’s primary legislation governing aquatic invasive species was enacted in 2012. The law creates the Nebraska Invasive Species Council, prohibits the import, possession, transport, and release of aquatic invasive species, and authorizes the Game and Fish Commission to adopt and promulgate rules and regulations governing the inspection, decontamination, and treatment of conveyances capable of containing or transporting aquatic invasive species. Commission regulations identify prohibited species and set forth procedures for watercraft inspection, decontamination, impoundment, and quarantine.

Neb. Rev. Stat. Ch. 37, Art. 2 (Game Law General Provisions)

Neb. Admin. R. & Regs. Tit. 163, Ch. 2 (Fisheries Regulations) 012 Aquatic Invasive Species Regulations

Nebraska Stamp Proposed Rule



Nevada’s invasive species laws and regulations restrict the import, transport, and possession of listed prohibited species and declare it unlawful to launch a watercraft without first complying with the Department of Wildlife’s inspection and decontamination requirements. The Department of Wildlife is authorized to establish and operate mandatory aquatic invasive species inspection stations.

Nev. Rev. Stat. §§ 488.035, 488.530, and 488.533

Nev. Admin. Code §§ 488.520 – 527 and 503.110

Nevada AB35

Nevada AB82

Nevada AB136


New Mexico

New Mexico’s primary legislation providing authority for the prevention and control of aquatic invasive species was enacted in 2009. The legislation authorizes the New Mexico Game and Fish Department to designate aquatic invasive species and infested waters, sets forth specific requirements for the inspection and decontamination of conveyances and equipment. Department regulations outline procedures for conveyance inspection, decontamination, and impoundment.

N.M. Rev. Stat. Ch. 17, Art. 1 (State Game Commission)

New Mexico AIS Regulations - N.M. Admin. Code Tit. 19, Ch. 30, Part 14 (Aquatic Invasive Species)

AIS Rules (Tit. 19, Ch. 30, Part 14 (Aquatic Invasive Species) (June 2017); Fact sheet associated with amendment of 19.30.14 NMAC


North Dakota

North Dakota passed its Aquatic Nuisance Species law in 2005. The legislation contains provision to prevent and control the spread of invasive species, creates an Aquatic Nuisance Species Committee, prohibits certain activities, and authorizes a statewide management plan and the training of personnel for inspections. The North Dakota Game and Fish Department’s regulations further detail the state’s program, including provisions on seizure, penalties, and the inspection of equipment.

N.D. Cent. Code Tit. 20.1, Ch. 20.1-02 (Game and Fish Department)

N.D. Admin. Code Tit. 30, Art. 30-03, Ch. 30-03-06 (Aquatic Nuisance Species)

North Dakota’s Aquatic Nuisance Species List

North Dakota HB 1356



Okla. Admin. Code Tit. 800, Ch. 20, Subch. 4 (Aquatic Nuisance Species Restrictions)

Okla. Admin. Code Tit. 29, Ch. 1, Art. VI, Part 6 (Fishing waters)

Okla. Admin. Code Tit 800, Ch. 20, Subch. 1 (Restricted Exotic Fish)



Oregon passed its Aquatic Invasive Species law in 2009. The legislation includes provisions on operating inspection check stations and creates an aquatic invasive species prevention permit and fund. The Oregon State Marine Board regulations cover watercraft inspection stations.

Ore. Rev. Stat. Tit. 61, Ch. 830 (Small Watercraft)

Ore. Admin. R. Ch. 250 (Oregon State Marine Board), Div. 10 (Statewide Rules)


South Dakota

The South Dakota GFP Commission finalized new AIS regulations in March of 2015. Attached is a copy of the draft legal write-up of the regulations. They will be reviewed by the Secretary of State office and will come into effect in April of 2015. The final will be posted here at that time.

South Dakota AIS Statute, S.D. Codified Laws Tit. 41, Ch. 41-2

South Dakota AIS Regulations


Tahoe Regional Planning Compact

CA TRPA Provisions

NV TRPA Provisions

Resolution No. 82-11

Tahoe Provisions

TRPA Code of Ordinances



Tex. Parks & Wild. Code Tit. 5, Ch. 66 (Fish and Aquatic Plants)

Texas Admin. Code, Tit. 31, Ch. 57, Subch. A (Harmful or Potentially Harmful Fish, Shellfish, and Aquatic Plants)



The Utah legislature enacted the state’s Aquatic Invasive Species Interdiction Act in 2008. The legislation is limited to Dreissena mussels and contains provisions regulating this species and provides for inspections, decontamination, and penalties, as well as the power and duties of the Division of Wildlife Resources and the Wildlife Board. The Utah Administrative Code further details out these requirements.

Utah Code Tit. 23, Ch. 27 (Aquatic Invasive Species Interdiction Act)

Utah Admin. Code R657-60 (Aquatic Invasive Species Interdiction)

Bear Lake Reg Amendment

Utah AIS Interdiction Proposed Rule



Washington revised its aquatic invasive species legislation in 2017. The law contains provisions that detail the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife’s powers and duties, as well as provisions on owner responsibilities, inspection, decontamination and penalties. Washington AIS regulations; Washington AIS Statutes

Revised Code of Washington, Tit. 77 Ch. 135 (Invasive Species)

Revised Code of Washington, Tit. 77 Ch. 120 (Ballast Water Management)

WA Admin. Code, Chapter 220-640 (Invasive/Nonnative Species)



Wyoming’s primary legislation governing aquatic invasive species was enacted during the 2010 Legislative Session. The law provides for the establishment of the Wyoming Department of Game and Fish’s AIS program, which includes authority to establish, operate, and maintain check stations in order to inspect conveyances. To implement the program, the Wyoming Department of Game and Fish has promulgated regulations setting forth procedures for conveyance inspection, decontamination, impoundment and quarantine.

Wyo. Stat. Ann. Tit. 23 (Game and Fish), Ch. 4, Art. 2 (Aquatic Invasive Species)

Wyo. Code R. Ch. 62 (Regulation for Aquatic Invasive Species)

Wyoming Notice of Intent


Canada AIS Regulations

Aquatic Invasive Species Regulations (2018)

Import Prohibitions and Requirements for Commercial Importers of Aquatic Species and for Travellers Under the Aquatic Invasive Species Regulations (2015)


Alberta Fisheries Act

Alberta Ministerial Order 30


British Columbia

BC Wildlife Act

BC Controlled Alien Species Regulation



Manitoba Fisheries Regulation

Manitoba Water Protection Act



Saskatchewan AIS Provisions

Other US AIS - Related Federal Regulations

Aquatic Invasive Species Law Enforcement Order (USFS, PNW Region, 2016) 

Aquatic Invasive Species Law Enforcement Order Briefing Paper (USFS, PNW Region, 2016) 

US Public Laws

All Enacted bills and joint resolutions appear on this list

US Federal Appropriations

United States Congress: Appropriations Status Table (Congressional Research Service)

US AIS - Federal Legislation

117th Congress AIS Federal Legislation (Last updated January 11, 2023 - Final)

116th Congress AIS Federal Legislation (Last updated January 11, 2021 - Final)

115th  Congress  AIS Federal Legislation (last updated 14 January 2019, Final)

National Invasive Species Act of 1996: BILL: HR 5390

Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990 (NANPCA): BILL: HR 4283

AIS Legislative Tracker

118th Congress AIS Federal Legislation (1/11/23) (.xls file)

Quagga Zebra Action Plan

QZAP 2.0: Updated Recommendations for the Quagga and Zebra Mussel Action Plan for Western U.S. Waters (Western Regional Panel on Aquatic Nuisance Species 2020)

Quagga and Zebra Mussel Action Plan for Western Waters: Status Update Report (Western Regional Panel on Aquatic Nuisance Species  2019)

Quagga Zebra Action Plan (QZAP) (Western Regional Panel on Aquatic Nuisance Species  2010)

Resources for Municipalities 

The Role of Local Municipalities and Entities in Addressing Aquatic Invasive Species

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