The unsung success of injurious wildlife listing under the Lacey Act (Jewell and Fuller 2021)
Analysis of State Legal Requirements for Aquatic Invasive Species Biosecurity at Fish Hatcheries (Nichols and Otts 2019)
Comparative Analysis of Watercraft Inspection and Decontamination Requirements Along the Lower Colorado River (Sea Grant Law Center 2019)
Model Memorandum of Understanding for Watercraft Inspection and Decontamination Programs (National Sea Grant Law Center, US Fish and Wildlife Service 2018)
Invasive Species Law Review Compendium (Montana Invasive Species Council 2018)
Guidelines for developing commercial harvest policy for aquatic invasive species (Mississippi River Basin Panel on ANS 2007)
State Watercraft Inspection Programs - Quick Facts (National Sea Grant Law Center 2018)
Model Regulation for State Watercraft Inspection and Decontamination Programs (Otts, S., and P. Nanjappa, eds. 2016)
From Theory to Practice: A Comparison of State Watercraft Inspection and Decontamination Programs to Model Legislative Provisions (Showalter Otts - Revised and updated December 2018)
Preventing the Spread of Aquatic Invasive Species by Recreational Boats: Model Legislative Provisions & Guidance to Promote Reciprocity among State Watercraft Inspection and Decontamination Programs (Otts, S. and P. Nanjappa, eds. 2014)
Invasive Species State Policy Report (California, Colorado, Florida, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Tennessee) (ELI, May 2010)
Western State AIS Regulations
Searchable .pdf of all western state AIS regulations (Updated 13 July 2021)
Arizona’s Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) Interdiction Act (HB2157), approved and signed into law in July of 2009, created a mechanism for the State of Arizona to statutorily address invasive species in the aquatic environment, administered through the Arizona Game and Fish Department. The AIS Interdiction Act also provided for the establishment of the Department’s AIS Program, along with the creation of AIS “Director’s Orders” and associated watercraft cleaning/decontamination protocols.
Director’s Order 1, 2 and 3 (1: List of Aquatic Invasive Species for Arizona; 2: List of Waters where Listed Species are Present; 3; Mandatory Conditions for Movement of Watercraft)
The Aquatic Invasive Species chapter of the California Fish and Game Code contains general provisions concerning specific invasive species, including dreissenid mussels. The statute directs owners and managers of reservoirs used by the public to develop and implement dreissenid prevention programs. The state has also established a Quagga and Zebra Mussel Infestation Prevention Fee in the state’s Harbors and Navigation Code.
Colorado’s Aquatic Nuisance Species law, enacted in 2008, provides Colorado Parks and Wildlife with broad authority to take action to prevent, control, monitor, and eradicate aquatic nuisance species. The law specifically authorizes CPW to operate ANS check stations to inspect and decontaminate watercraft. CPW regulations contain a list of prohibited species and protocols for water body sampling and monitoring and watercraft inspection, decontamination, and impoundment.
The Idaho Invasive Species Act of 2008 provides for the establishment of the Idaho State Department of Agriculture’s invasive species program, which includes authority to establish, operate, and maintain check stations to inspect conveyances. ISDA regulations identify listed prohibited species and procedures for watercraft inspection and decontamination.
The Montana Invasive Species Act, enacted in 2009, established the state’s invasive species program and authorized the use of invasive species check stations to prevent the movement of invasive species from infested to uninfested areas. Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks has primary authority to implement the program and the agency’s regulations identify listed prohibited species and set forth the restrictions for contaminated bodies of water.
Invasive Species Law Review Compendium (Montana Invasive Species Council 2018)
Nebraska’s primary legislation governing aquatic invasive species was enacted in 2012. The law creates the Nebraska Invasive Species Council, prohibits the import, possession, transport, and release of aquatic invasive species, and authorizes the Game and Fish Commission to adopt and promulgate rules and regulations governing the inspection, decontamination, and treatment of conveyances capable of containing or transporting aquatic invasive species. Commission regulations identify prohibited species and set forth procedures for watercraft inspection, decontamination, impoundment, and quarantine.
Nevada’s invasive species laws and regulations restrict the import, transport, and possession of listed prohibited species and declare it unlawful to launch a watercraft without first complying with the Department of Wildlife’s inspection and decontamination requirements. The Department of Wildlife is authorized to establish and operate mandatory aquatic invasive species inspection stations.
New Mexico’s primary legislation providing authority for the prevention and control of aquatic invasive species was enacted in 2009. The legislation authorizes the New Mexico Game and Fish Department to designate aquatic invasive species and infested waters, sets forth specific requirements for the inspection and decontamination of conveyances and equipment. Department regulations outline procedures for conveyance inspection, decontamination, and impoundment.
AIS Rules (Tit. 19, Ch. 30, Part 14 (Aquatic Invasive Species) (June 2017); Fact sheet associated with amendment of 19.30.14 NMAC
North Dakota passed its Aquatic Nuisance Species law in 2005. The legislation contains provision to prevent and control the spread of invasive species, creates an Aquatic Nuisance Species Committee, prohibits certain activities, and authorizes a statewide management plan and the training of personnel for inspections. The North Dakota Game and Fish Department’s regulations further detail the state’s program, including provisions on seizure, penalties, and the inspection of equipment.
Oregon passed its Aquatic Invasive Species law in 2009. The legislation includes provisions on operating inspection check stations and creates an aquatic invasive species prevention permit and fund. The Oregon State Marine Board regulations cover watercraft inspection stations.
The South Dakota GFP Commission finalized new AIS regulations in March of 2015. Attached is a copy of the draft legal write-up of the regulations. They will be reviewed by the Secretary of State office and will come into effect in April of 2015. The final will be posted here at that time.
The Utah legislature enacted the state’s Aquatic Invasive Species Interdiction Act in 2008. The legislation is limited to Dreissena mussels and contains provisions regulating this species and provides for inspections, decontamination, and penalties, as well as the power and duties of the Division of Wildlife Resources and the Wildlife Board. The Utah Administrative Code further details out these requirements.
Washington revised its aquatic invasive species legislation in 2017. The law contains provisions that detail the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife’s powers and duties, as well as provisions on owner responsibilities, inspection, decontamination and penalties. Washington AIS regulations; Washington AIS Statutes
Wyoming’s primary legislation governing aquatic invasive species was enacted during the 2010 Legislative Session. The law provides for the establishment of the Wyoming Department of Game and Fish’s AIS program, which includes authority to establish, operate, and maintain check stations in order to inspect conveyances. To implement the program, the Wyoming Department of Game and Fish has promulgated regulations setting forth procedures for conveyance inspection, decontamination, impoundment and quarantine.
Canada AIS Regulations
Other US AIS - Related Federal Regulations
Aquatic Invasive Species Law Enforcement Order (USFS, PNW Region, 2016)
Aquatic Invasive Species Law Enforcement Order Briefing Paper (USFS, PNW Region, 2016)
US Public Laws
US Federal Appropriations
United States Congress: Appropriations Status Table (Congressional Research Service)
US AIS - Federal Legislation
AIS Legislative Tracker
117th Congress AIS Federal Legislation (10/8/21) (.xls file)
Quagga Zebra Action Plan
QZAP 2.0: Updated Recommendations for the Quagga and Zebra Mussel Action Plan for Western U.S. Waters (Western Regional Panel on Aquatic Nuisance Species 2020)
Quagga and Zebra Mussel Action Plan for Western Waters: Status Update Report (Western Regional Panel on Aquatic Nuisance Species 2019)